The original spelling was Gimboomba, named after a sheep and livestock station based where the township is today, stretching some distance north, east and south to neighbouring areas. Gimboomba is a Gugingin word (the First Australian peoples of the area, of Yugambeh country) meaning place of loud thunder and little rain. A culture trail celebrating First Australian culture is based at a local primary school bearing the name ‘Loud Thunder’ paying respect to its traditional owners. It was leased for grazing in those days and was taken up by Thomas Dowse during 1845-48. It was then transferred to Sydney publican Robert Rowlands and was later taken up by Andrew Inglis Henderson in 1851 to be used as a sheep run and subsequently for cattle grazing.
Jimboomba Provisional School opened on 12 May 1890, becoming Jimboomba State School on 1 June 1900.
Jimboomba was serviced by the Beaudesert railway line that was established to service the abattoir in Beaudesert. The line was closed in 1995 and then reopened and operated as a tourist service as far as Logan Village by railway enthusiasts from 1999 until mid-2004. Funds were harder to raise and depleted quickly for the line so it was closed permanently.
Formerly in the Shire of Beaudesert, Jimboomba became part of Logan City following the local government amalgamations in March 2008.